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辟谣!世卫组织用事实驳击寨卡谣言

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2016-03-05  浏览次数:68
核心提示:  随着近期中国大陆确认多例输入性寨卡病毒感染病例,对于寨卡病毒及小头症的关注和讨论也逐渐增多。面对谣言,更需要了解的是
   随着近期中国大陆确认多例输入性寨卡病毒感染病例,对于寨卡病毒及小头症的关注和讨论也逐渐增多。面对谣言,更需要了解的是事实!

  

  事实一 疫苗并未导致婴儿小头症

  无论是最初在2013年至2014年在法属波利尼西亚,还是最近在巴西东北部,都没有证据显示,所观测到的小头症病例数增多与任何疫苗有关联。

  对2014年发表的文献进行的广泛审查表明,没有证据显示妊娠期接种的任何疫苗导致了出生缺陷。为世界卫生组织(世卫组织)在疫苗安全问题上提供独立科学咨询的全球疫苗安全咨询委员会也在2014年得出类似结论。

  此外,国家监管机构负责确保向公众发放的疫苗等产品获得适当评估,并符合国际质量和安全标准。世卫组织协助各国加强国家监管体系。

  事实二 杀虫剂蚊蝇醚并不导致小头症

  蚊蝇醚(又名吡丙醚)是世卫组织推荐的12种杀灭蚊子幼虫的药剂之一。世卫组织专家团队最近审查了蚊蝇醚的毒理学数据,并未发现有证据显示此种杀虫剂可影响妊娠或胚胎发育。美国环境保护局和欧盟的调查人员也分别在对该产品的评估中得出相似结论。

  杀幼虫剂是公共卫生人员手中的一件利器。尤其是,在没有自来水供应的城市和乡镇,人们习惯于在室外容器中储存饮用水,这些水源以及垃圾、花盆和轮胎中的积水是蚊子理想的繁殖场所。

  人们经常在储水容器中使用蚊蝇醚等杀幼虫剂杀灭蚊子幼虫。若有人饮用经蚊蝇醚处理的容器中的水,就可能会接触到杀幼虫剂,但接触剂量很低,因此并不损害人体健康。而且,人体摄入的任何杀幼虫剂的90%至95%可在48小时内经尿液排出体外。自蚊蝇醚于上世纪90年代末投入使用以来,从未发现它与小头症存在联系。

  事实三 寨卡疫情与转基因蚊子并无关联

  没有证据显示巴西寨卡病毒病或小头症是由转基因蚊子导致的。利用转基因蚊子指的是修改雄蚊的基因,导致其与雌蚊交配后的幼虫后代无法存活。这是一种控制蚊群的手段。

  世卫组织鼓励受寨卡病毒影响的国家及其合作伙伴作为最直接的防御手段强化使用现有控蚊措施,同时谨慎试验可能在将来应用的控蚊新方法。

  事实四 绝育的雄蚊并不助长寨卡传播

  正在开发的一项遏制寨卡病毒的技术是,在环境中大量释放经过低剂量辐射的绝育雄蚊。绝育雄蚊与雌蚊交配后,雌蚊繁殖的虫卵无法存活。在控制农业害虫领域,这种方法已被大规模成功应用。没有证据显示这项技术与小头症病例增多或其它人体异常与缺陷相关。

  世卫组织鼓励受寨卡病毒影响的国家及其合作伙伴作为最直接的防御手段强化使用现有控蚊措施,同时谨慎试验可能在将来应用的控蚊新方法。

  事实五 控蚊细菌没导致寨卡进一步传播

  有些地方使用沃尔巴克氏菌等细菌控制蚊群,这类细菌并不感染人类或其它哺乳动物。60%的常见昆虫(如蝴蝶和果蝇)体内有沃尔巴克氏菌。澳大利亚、巴西、印度尼西亚和越南等地释放了携带沃尔巴克氏菌的蚊子,以协助控制登革热(登革热由传播寨卡病毒的同一种蚊子传播)。雌蚊与携带这种细菌的雄蚊交配后,蚊卵不能孵化,从而达到遏制蚊群的目标。

  事实六 养鱼协助遏制寨卡病毒

  一些受寨卡和登革热病毒影响的国家正利用生物学手段综合控蚊。例如,萨尔瓦多在本国渔民大力支持下,在盛水容器中放养了可以吞食幼虫的鱼类。

  

  Dispelling Rumours Around Zika and Microcephaly

  Truth No.1: No evidence that vaccines cause microcephaly in babies.There is no evidence linking any vaccine to the increases in microcephaly cases that were observed first in French Polynesia during the 2013-2014 outbreak and more recently in northeastern Brazil. No evidence that vaccines cause microcephaly in babies.

  An extensive review of the literature published in 2014 found no evidence that any vaccine administered during pregnancy resulted in birth defects. The Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety, which provides independent scientific advice to the World Health Organization (WHO) on vaccine safety issues, reached a similar conclusion in 2014.

  In addition, national regulatory agencies are responsible for ensuring that products released for public distribution, such as vaccines, are evaluated properly and meet international standards of quality and safety. WHO assists countries in strengthening their national regulatory systems.

  Truth No.2: No evidence that pyriproxyfen insecticide causes microcephaly.A team of WHO scientists recently reviewed data on the toxicology of pyriproxyfen, one of 12 larvicides that WHO recommends to reduce mosquito populations. It found no evidence that the larvicide affects the course of pregnancy or the development of a fetus. The US Environmental Protection Agency and EU investigators reached a similar conclusion when they carried out a separate review of the product.

  Larvicides are an important weapon in the public health practitioner’s arsenal. Especially in cities and towns with no piped water, people tend to store drinking water in outdoor containers. These sources of water, as well as standing water that may collect in garbage, flower pots and tyres, serve as ideal breeding grounds for mosquitoes.

  Larvicides such as pyriproxyfen are often used in containers wher people store water to kill the mosquito in its larval stage. When people drink water from containers that have been treated with pyriproxyfen, they are exposed to the larvicide – but in tiny amounts that do not harm their health. Moreover, 90% - 95% of any larvicide ingested is excreted into the urine within 48 hours. This product has been used since the late-1990s without being linked to microcephaly.

  Truth No.3:No evidence that the Zika outbreak and unusual increase in microcephaly cases in Brazil is linked to recent releases of genetically modified mosquitoes in Brazil.There is no evidence that Zika virus disease or microcephaly in Brazil is caused by genetically modified mosquitoes. In genetically modified mosquitoes, the genes of male mosquitoes are modified. Because of the modification, when they mate with female mosquitoes, their larval offspring cannot survive. This practice is designed to control mosquito populations.

  WHO encourages affected countries and their partners to boost the use of current mosquito control interventions as the most immediate line of defence, and to judiciously test the new approaches that could be applied in future.

  Truth No.4:No evidence that sterilized male mosquitoes contribute to the spread of Zika.A technique being developed to stop Zika is the mass release of male mosquitoes that have been sterilized by low doses of radiation. When a sterile male mates, the female’s eggs do not survive. The technique has been successfully used, on a large scale, to control insect pests that threaten agriculture. There is no evidence that the technique has been associated with increases in microcephaly cases or other human anomalies or defects.

  WHO encourages affected countries and their partners to boost the use of current mosquito control interventions as the most immediate line of defense, and to judiciously test the new approaches that could be applied in future.

  Truth No.5:Bacteria used to control the male mosquito population are not spreading Zika further.Bacteria such as Wolbachia bacteria are used to control mosquito populations; they do not infect humans or other mammals. Wolbachia bacteria are found in 60% of common insects, including butterflies and fruit flies. Mosquitoes carrying Wolbachia bacteria have been released in several places, including Australia, Brazil, Indonesia and Viet Nam, to help control dengue (which is transmitted by the same mosquito that transmits Zika). When females mate with males carrying the bacteria, the eggs do not hatch, thus supressing mosquito populations.

  Truth No.6:Fish can help stop Zika.Some countries affected by Zika and dengue are using biological methods as part of an integrated approach to mosquito control. El Salvador, for example, with strong support from fishing communities, is introducing larvae-devouring fish into water storage containers.

 
 
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